Vaginal Melanoma: Understanding a Rare Gynecological Cancer

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Vaginal Melanoma: Understanding a Rare Gynecological Cancer

Vaginal melanoma is an extremely rare type of cancer that develops in the vaginal lining when pigment-producing cells called melanocytes grow out of control. Only about 3% of all vaginal cancers diagnosed annually are melanomas. However, this aggressive cancer requires rapid treatment and management. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of this condition, from its symptoms to available treatment options for vaginal melanoma.

What are the Symptoms of Vaginal Melanoma?

Common symptoms of primary vaginal melanoma include:

  • Vaginal spotting or bleeding not related to menstruation, especially bleeding after intercourse
  • Dark lesions on the vaginal walls that may grow or bleed
  • Vaginal itching, burning, or pain
  • Abnormal or blood-tinged vaginal discharge
  • Painful urination
  • Constipation from vaginal narrowing
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the groin

These symptoms can be associated with other more common conditions like yeast infections or cysts. But any persistent vaginal changes warrant medical evaluation, especially if bleeding or dark spots occur. Catching melanoma early is key.

What Causes Vaginal Melanoma?

The exact cause of vaginal melanoma is unknown. Risk factors include:

  • Fairer skin – Increased risk in Caucasian women and those easily sunburned
  • Older age – Most cases occur in the 60s
  • Inherited gene mutations – CDKN2A mutation carriers susceptible
  • Previous melanoma diagnosis – Higher chance of secondary melanoma
  • Immunosuppression – Women with weakened immune systems
  • Vaginal irritation – Chronic inflammation may play a role
  • Smoking cigarettes – Tobacco use seems correlated

Though melanoma is associated with sun exposure, UV radiation does not cause vaginal lesions since the vagina is not exposed to sunlight. But the aforementioned factors may trigger DNA damage that allows melanocytes to grow malignant tumors in vaginal tissue.

How is Vaginal Melanoma Diagnosed?

Pelvic exam – Visual inspection of external genitalia and vaginal canal for lesions.

Colposcopy – Enhanced viewing of the vagina through the device that magnifies and lights up the interior. Suspicious lesions are biopsied.

PET scan – Glucose tracer helps detect the spread of cancer to lymph nodes and other organs.

Chest x-ray – Checks the health of the lungs since melanoma can spread to the respiratory system.

Surgery – Full-thickness incisional biopsy done on suspicious lesions to allow pathologic testing. Confirms diagnosis.

Blood tests – Check blood cell counts, function, and tumor markers.

These diagnostic steps determine the extent of the primary vaginal melanoma and whether it has already metastasized internally. Staging reveals the best treatment path.

What are the Stages of Vaginal Melanoma?

Stage 1: The tumor is confined to just the vaginal lining.

Stage 2: The tumor has spread to the subvaginal tissue but not the pelvic wall.

Stage 3: The melanoma extends to the pelvic wall and/or lower urethra and bladder.

Stage 4: Distant metastases occur with spread to lungs, liver, bones, or GI tract.

The higher the staging, the lower the chances of survivability. Even early stage 1 disease requires aggressive treatment as vaginal melanoma advances rapidly.

How is Vaginal Melanoma Treated?

Common treatments include:

  • Surgical excision – Removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue margins.
  • Immunotherapy drugs – PD-1 inhibitors enhance the immune response against cancer.
  • Chemotherapy – Cytotoxic chemicals kill rapidly dividing cancer cells.
  • Radiation – High-energy X-ray beams target and destroy lesions.
  • Vaginectomy– Surgical removal of part or all of the vagina in advanced cases.
  • Pelvic exenteration – Removal of the bladder, ovaries, uterus, and vagina.
  • Palliative care – Managing pain, emotional distress, and quality of life.

The stage of the disease and the goal of treatment will determine whether therapies are combined. Lesions often recur after initial treatment. Lifelong monitoring is required.

What is the Prognosis for Vaginal Melanoma?

Prognosis worsens dramatically as vaginal melanoma advances:

  • Stage 1: 50% 5-year survival rate if caught early.
  • Stage 2: 20-30% 5-year survival rate.
  • Stage 3: Less than 15% 5-year survival rate.
  • Stage 4: Less than 10% 5-year survival rate.

Sadly, over 50% of women have metastases at diagnosis as symptoms tend to manifest late after progression. This lowers the prognosis significantly. However, when detected early, long-term remission and even cure are possible.

Preventing Vaginal Melanoma

Limited screening and minimal known risk factors make prevention practically impossible. But managing known risk factors may help:

  • Quitting smoking to avoid tobacco carcinogens
  • Using barrier protection during intercourse to reduce inflammation
  • Practicing safe sun habits to prevent other melanomas
  • Staying vigilant about vaginal health and seeking care for any abnormal bleeding or discharge

While screening Pap tests do not check for vaginal melanoma, annual exams help women stay aware of their vaginal health to report any concerning changes promptly.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Does vaginal melanoma recur after treatment?
Answer: Yes, melanoma is prone to recurrence both locally and through distant metastases. Continued follow-up is vital.

Who is most at risk for developing it?
Answer: Fair-skinned Caucasian women over 50 with a history of melanoma or weakened immune systems have the greatest risk.

Are the symptoms commonly mistaken for other conditions?
Answer: Yes, vaginal melanoma symptoms mirror more benign issues like cysts or yeast infections. This delays diagnosis.

Can you be completely cured after a diagnosis?
Answer: Yes, when detected very early in stage 1, a small localized tumor can potentially be cured by surgical excision before spreading internally.

Is vaginal melanoma linked to skin melanoma?
Answer: Sometimes. Women with prior skin melanomas or strong family histories have an elevated risk of all types of melanomas.


Vaginal melanoma is an uncommon but dangerous cancer needing rapid treatment when caught early. Since symptoms manifest late in progression, it is often diagnosed at later stages lowering prognosis. But new immunotherapy drugs continue to improve outcomes. Stay vigilant about vaginal health and report any abnormalities like bleeding, pain, or dark spots to your provider to enable early detection and life-saving treatment of this rare cancer.

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